Chapter 23

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By 1824 two other Northwest Ordinance states--Eugene Berwanger, The Frontier Against Slavery, Urbana, IL, 1967, p. 17; William Tutter, The Frontier State: 1803-1825, vol. 2 of The History of the State of Ohio, ed. Carl Wittke, Columbus, 1942, pp. 327-328. Back

I trust [that] the good sense--Edward Coles to Nicholas Biddle, April 22, 1823, in Clarence Alvord, Governor Edward Coles, Illinois Historical Society Library, 1920, pp. 120-123. Back

We are a society of free men--Morris Birkbeck, "An Appeal to the People of Illinois on the Question of a Convention," The Magazine of History, no. 131 (1927) 20. See the Illinois Intelligencer, June 25, 1824, for Coles' version of this argument, contained in Essay #6 from "One of Many." Back

All the power of the community--Ibid., p. 38. Back

to prevail on the newspaper writers--Edward Coles to Nicholas Biddle, Sept. 18, 1823, in Alvord, pp. 130-132. Back

The Friends of Freedom--Illinois Intelligencer, July 30, 1824. Back

As yet the power--George Flower, History of the English Settlement in Edwards County, Chicago Historical Society Collections, Chicago, 1882, vol. 1, pp. 216-217. Back

Shall we, Coles asks--Illinois Intelligencer, May 28, 1824. Back

It requires not the spirit of prophesy--Republican Advocate, July 3, 1823. Back

The white man, even the white woman--Flower, p. 218. Back

The dwellings of slaves--Edwardsville Spectator, Aug. 16, 1823. Back

A dreadful inheritance is slavery--Birkbeck, p. 25. Back

Clearly population and wealth grow faster in the free states--Ibid., pp. 29-30. Back

To purchase slaves--Republican Advocate, June 19, 1823. Back

As for the price of land--Birkbeck, pp. 22-23. Back

In regard to emigration--Ibid., p. 40. Back

In January 1824--Isaac Coles to Betsy Coles, Feb. 12, 1824, Roberts Coles Collection. Back

The English at Albion and Wanborough--Flower, pp. 260-265. Back

Birkbeck insisted in the local paper--Illinois Gazette, Sept. 9, 1820. Back

And even John Peck--John Peck to Hooper Warren, March 27, 1855, in Alvord, pp. 332-337; the replication of that letter with an answer by Warren in the Free West, May 3, 1855, in Alvord, pp. 337-344; and Peck to the Editor of the Free West, May 25, 1855, in Alvord, pp. 351-352. Back

Persons who do not defend the principle of slavery--Birkbeck, p. 33. Back

the new states to the south--Birkbeck, p. 33. Back

Not so, declares Birkbeck--Ibid., p. 34. Back

Coles, too, finds himself in a racist bind--Illinois Intelligencer, May 28, 1824. Back

In furnishing a country for the Negroes--Illinois Intelligencer, June 11, 1824. Back

Human forms stripped of all that is estimable--Birkbeck, p. 31. Back

If we do not discover talents in them--Republican Advocate, July 3, 1823. Back

Would that it were so!--Illinois Intelligencer, July 16, 1824. Back

Edward Coles

Chapter 23