Chapter 16

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A few steps more--George Flower, History of the English Settlement in Edwards County, Chicago Historical Society Collections, Chicago, 1882, vol. 1, p. 64. Back

In early days--W. T. Norton, Centennial History of Madison County, Illinois and Its People, Chicago, 1912, p. 594. Back

Coles was careful to warn Birkbeck--Edward Coles to William Barry, June 25, 1858, Chicago Historical Society. Back

In a year or two--Flower, p. 174. Back

In 1818 about 71%--Solon J. Buck, Illinois in 1818, 2nd ed., Urbana, 1967, p. 99. See also Max Gordon, The Slavery Conflict on the Illinois Frontier, M.A. Thesis, Columbia University, 1961, pp. 45-58, for a more extensive discussion of the origins of settlers in Illinois, the reasons for their coming, and the effects of their various backgrounds on the slavery conflict. Back

For many years the "Yankees"--Joseph Gillespie, "Recollections of Early Illinois and Her Noted Men," Fergus Historical Series, no. 13, Chicago, 1880, p. 6. Back

Solitude, watchfulness, and contemplation--Flower, pp. 174-177. Back

The tactic of the whites--Robert P. Howard, Illinois: A History of the Prairie State, Grand Rapids, 1972, pp. 95-96. Back

In St. Louis in 1804--Cecil Eby, "That Disgraceful Affair," the Black Hawk War, New York, 1973, pp. 45-47. Back

In 1809, then Governor Harrison--Augie Debo, A History of the Indians in the U.S., Norman, OK, 1970, p. 90. Back

the Shawnee Prophet and his brother Tecumseh--Ibid., pp. 90-93. Back

Ninian Edwards, governor of the Illinois Territory, wrote--Howard, p. 90. Back

The Indians were ignorant--Norton, pp. 33-40. This is the source of the quotes and information in the next four paragraphs. Back

Our correspondent--Illinois Intelligencer, Nov. 4, 1818. Back

Unfortunate people!--Flower, p. 53. Back

The slave population in Edwardsville--Norton, p. 208. See also Gordon, pp. 12-17, for a short history of slavery in the Illinois Territory. Back

This typical advertisement--Edwardsville Spectator, January 22, 1822. Back

One group of enslaved blacks--Howard, p. 132. Back

The manufacture of salt--Illinois Gazette, July 10, 1824. Back

$200 Reward--Illinois Intelligencer, Oct. 19, 1822. Back

Strongly impressed with the absolute necessity--Illinois Gazette, Sept. 9, 1820. Back

Girls--look out!--Illinois Intelligencer, July 10, 1821. Reprinted from the Pittsburgh Statesman. Back

could shoot a deer--History of Madison County, Illinois, Edwardsville, 1882, p. 92. Back

a flourishing town--Ibid., p. 337. Back

While the old capital was at Kaskaskia--Norton, pp. 138-139. Back

Edwards had been born in the old South--W.T. Norton, "Ninian Edwards," Illinois State Historical Society Journal, vol. 17 (1924-25), 196-203. Back

Nathaniel Pope--Paul Angle, "Nathaniel Pope, 1784-1850: A Memoir," Illinois State Historical Society, Transactions for the Year 1936, 111-181. Back

Daniel Pope Cook--Josephine E. Burns, "Daniel P. Cook," Illinois State Historical Society Journal, vol. 6 (1913-14), 425-442. Back

Daniel Cook was an outspoken opponent--Combined History of Randolph, Monroe, and Perry Counties, Illinois, Philadelphia, 1883, p. 109. Edwards had earlier been pro-slavery, but he became more sympathetic to the anti-slavery position after Cook married his daughter. Back

Jesse B. Thomas--J. F. Snyder, "Forgotten Statesman of Illinois: Hon. Jesse Burgess Thomas," Illinois State Historical Society, Transactions for the Year 1904, 514-523. Back

Elias Kent Kane--Henry B. Chamberlain, "Elias Kent Kane," Illinois State Historical Society, Transactions for the Year 1908, 162-170. Back

Shadrach Bond--Dictionary of American Biography. Back

James Lemen, was sent there by Jefferson--Joseph B. Lemen, "The Jefferson-Lemen Anti-Slavery Pact," Illinois State Historical Society, Transactions for the Year 1908, 74-84. See also, W.C. McNaul, "The Jefferson-Lemen Compact" (paper read before the Chicago Historical Society on February 16, 1915), and Theodore Pease, "Review of McNaul's Jefferson-Lemen Compact," Mississippi Valley Historical Review, III (Sept. 1916) 252-254. Back

the pro-slavery forces moved--Illinois Intelligencer, January 11, 1823. Back

Edward Coles

Chapter 16